Persuade others to accept or reject
hypotheses by presenting data and interpretations
Detail data, procedures, and outcomes for
Become part of the accepted body of scientific
knowledge when published unless later disproved
Provide an archival record for reference
and document a current situation for future comparison
The typical lab report includes: title, abstract, introduction, materials
and methods, results, discussion, references and literature cited
Reflect the factual content with less than ten words in
a straightforward manner
Use keywords researchers and search engines on the
Internet will recognize
Summarize in a concise paragraph the purpose of the report,
data presented, and major conclusions in about 100 - 200 words.
Define the subject of the report: "Why was this study
Provide background information and relevant studies: "What
knowledge already exists about this subject?"
Outline scientific purpose(s) and/or objective(s): "What are
the specific hypotheses and the experimental design for
Materials and methods:
List materials used, how were they used, and where and when
was the work done (especially important in field studies)
Describe special pieces of equipment and the general theory of
the analyses or assays used
Provide enough detail for the reader to understand the
experiment without overwhelming him/her. When procedures from a
lab book or another report are followed exactly, simply cite the
work and note that details can be found there.
Concentrate on general trends and differences and not on
Summarize the data from the experiments without discussing
Organize data into tables, figures, graphs, photographs, etc.
Data in a table should not be duplicated in a graph or figure
Title all figures and tables; include a legend explaining
symbols, abbreviations, or special methods
Number figures and tables separately and refer to them in
the text by their number, i.e.
Figure 1 shows that the activity....
The activity decreases after five minutes (fig. 1)
Interpret the data; do not restate the results
Relate results to existing theory and knowledge
Explain the logic that allows you to accept or reject your
Speculate as necessary but identify it as such
Include suggestions for improving your techniques or design,
or clarify areas of doubt for further research
References & literature cited
Cite only references in your paper and not a general
bibliography on the topic
Alphabetize by last name of the author
Follow the recommended format for citations
Strive for logic and precision and avoid ambiguity, especially
with pronouns and sequences
Keep your writing impersonal; avoid the use of the first person
(i.e. I or we)
Use the past tense and be consistent within the report note:
"data" is plural and "datum" is singular; species is singular
Italicize all scientific names (genus and species)
Use the metric system of measurement and abbreviate measurements
without periods (i.e. cm kg) spell out all numbers beginning
sentences or less than 10 (i.e. "two explanations of six
Write numbers as numerals when greater than ten (i.e. 156) or
associated with measurements (i.e. 6 mm or 2 g)
Have a neutral person review and critique your report before
Website overview: Since 1996 the Study Guides and Strategies Website has been researched, authored, maintained and supported by Joe Landsberger as an international, learner-centric, educational public service.
Permission is granted to freely copy, adapt, and distribute individual Study Guides in print format in non-commercial educational settings that benefit learners.
Please be aware that the Guides welcome, and are under, continuous review and revision.
For that reason, digitization and reproduction of all content on the Internet can only be with permission through a licensed agreement. Linking to the Guides is encouraged!
The Study Guides and Strategies Website is intended for
students, ages middle school through returning adult, as well as their parents,
teachers and support professionals.
Its resources are intended to empower all learners without regard to
institutional and national boundaries; cultural mores and religious beliefs; race, gender and sexual orientation. Full disclaimer on use